Urinary Screening and Urinary Abnormalities in 3-year-old Children in Japan
Department of Pediatrics, Nippon Medical School Musashi Kosugi Hospital
In Japan, urinary screening for 3-year-old children has been obligatory since 1961. The system was reconsidered and has been under review since 2012 by The Japanese Society for Pediatric Nephrology. In the process, the following were analyzed: (i) frequency of urinary abnormalities identified on screening; (ii) diseases identified from urinary abnormalities; (iii) clinical course of children found to have urinary abnormalities; and (iv) screening for asymptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) as a way of screening for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. A computerized literature search was conducted, and study reports issued by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare study group, and data of Akita and Chiba City were reviewed. The prevalence of abnormal results at the first urinalysis was high, but at the second urinalysis the prevalence decreased in the range 1/6`1/20. The prevalence of tentative diagnosis at the third urinalysis was almost identical to the school urinary screening results. Serious illness was not found in children who had hematuria alone. In contrast, diseases requiring immediate attention were found in children with proteinuria, although the prevalence of proteinuria was not high. The dipstick method for leukocyturia was inefficient. The importance of two consecutive urinalyses before detailed examination, the lack of usefulness of screening for hematuria in 3-year-old children, and the importance of proteinuria were confirmed. Screening for asymptomatic UTI using urinary leukocytes was very inefficient.
ϊγεγο 2016; 12(3), 86-91
congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, end-stage renal disease, proteinuria, screening, three-year-old children
Takeshi Yanagihara, AP, Department of Pediatrics, Nippon Medical School Musashi Kosugi Hospital, 1-396 Kosugi-cho, Nakahara-ku, Kawasaki Kanagawa 211-8533, Japan