Genomic Organization of the 5-untranslated Regions of Estrogen Receptor α Genes
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Nippon Medical School
The estrogen receptor α (ERα) functions as a ligand-inducible transcription factor and plays pivotal roles in various biological processes in reproductive and non-reproductive organs. Expression of the ERα gene is subject to complicated regulation. The gene has a multiple promoter system which regulates spatial and temporal expression of ERα transcripts. Furthermore, the 5-untranslated regions (5-UTRs) of ERα mRNAs have shown potency for post-transcriptional modulation. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of ERα expression, we comparatively examined the genomic organization of the 5-regions of the ERα genes and the splicing profiles of their transcripts with distinct 5-ends. Our analyses revealed the presence of multiple novel promoters and untranslated exons in the 5-regions of the genes and showed that alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing generate numerous ERα transcripts with unique 5-UTRs in species-specific manners. In this manuscript, we review recent images of human, mouse, and rat ERα gene structures and describe alternative splicing and expression patterns of their 5-UTR isoforms.
ϊγεγο 2018; 14(4), 157-164
5-UTR, alternative promoter usage, alternative splicing, ERα, gene expression
Hirotaka Ishii, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyou-ku, Tokyo 113-8602, Japan